I believe most people have a question, that is, how do solar panels generate electricity? After all, solar panels look so ordinary. As soon as the sun is put there, it will generate current and then continue to supply power. This is incredible for people who do not understand the working principle of solar panels. To solve this question, we must know the power generation principle of solar panels. After knowing the relevant working principle of solar panels, this question will be revealed naturally.
Solar panel is a kind of photoelectric element that can convert energy. Its basic structure is formed by bonding p-type and n-type semiconductors. The principle is as follows:
1: The most basic semiconductor material "Silicon" is the main component of solar panels. It is non-conductive. However, if different impurities are mixed into the semiconductor, it can be made into p-type and n-type semiconductors, and then the p-type semiconductor has a hole (the p-type semiconductor has one less negatively charged electron, which can be regarded as one more positive charge);
2: A potential difference of one free electron is added to the n-type semiconductor to generate current. Therefore, when the sun shines, the light can excite the electrons in the silicon atom, resulting in convection of electrons and holes,
3: These electrons and holes will be affected by the built-in potential, and will be attracted by n-type and p-type semiconductors respectively, and gathered at both ends;
4: At this time, if the outside is connected with electrodes, the current flows in a regular way to form a loop, which is the power generation principle of solar panels.
In practical application, in order to prevent the battery panel from being hit by the wind and rain, the battery panel can be installed on a back plate, and its surface is covered with tempered glass for protection. Through the combination of series and parallel, solar cells form a photovoltaic power generation system, which is widely used in centralized or distributed power stations to supply power to urban enterprises, institutions or residential areas through high-voltage transmission.
The photovoltaic power generation system is mainly composed of photovoltaic modules, controllers, inverters, batteries and other accessories (batteries are not required for grid connection). Depending on whether it depends on the public power grid, it can be divided into two types: off grid and grid connected. The off grid system operates independently and does not need to rely on the power grid. The off grid photovoltaic system is equipped with a battery with energy storage function, which can ensure the stability of the system power, and can supply power to the load when the photovoltaic system does not generate power at night or does not generate enough power in cloudy and rainy days.
Whether it is an off grid or grid connected system, the working principle is that photovoltaic modules convert light energy into DC, and DC is converted into current under the action of inverter, so as to finally realize the functions of power consumption and on grid.
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