I believe most people have a question, that is, how do solar panels generate electricity? After all, solar panels look so ordinary. Just put the sun there, it will generate current, and then continue to supply power. This is incredible for people who don't understand the working principle of solar panels. To solve this question, we need to know the power generation principle of solar panels. After knowing the relevant working principle of solar panels, this question will be revealed naturally.
Solar panel is a kind of photoelectric element that can convert energy. Its basic structure is formed by bonding p-type and n-type semiconductors. The principle is as follows:
1：The most basic material of semiconductors, "Silicon", is the main component of solar panels. It is non-conductive, but if different impurities are mixed into semiconductors, they can be made into p-type and n-type semiconductors, and then use p-type semiconductors to have a hole (p-type semiconductors have one less negatively charged electron, which can be regarded as one more positive charge);
2：There is an additional potential difference of free electrons with n-type semiconductors to generate current, so when sunlight shines, light can excite electrons in silicon atoms, resulting in convection of electrons and holes,
3：These electrons and holes will be affected by the built-in potential, and will be attracted by n-type and p-type semiconductors respectively, and gathered at both ends;
4：At this time, if the outside is connected with electrodes, the current flows in a regular way to form a loop, which is the power generation principle of solar panels.
In practical application, in order to prevent solar panel from being hit by the wind and rain, the panel can be installed on a backplane, and its surface is covered with tempered glass for protection. Through the combination of series and parallel, solar cells form a photovoltaic power generation system, which is widely used in centralized or distributed power stations to supply power to urban enterprises, institutions or residential areas through high-voltage transmission.
The photovoltaic power generation system is mainly composed of photovoltaic modules, controllers, inverters, batteries and other accessories (batteries are not required for grid connection). Depending on whether it depends on the public power grid, it can be divided into off grid and grid connected. The off grid system operates independently and does not need to rely on the power grid. The off grid photovoltaic system is equipped with a battery with energy storage function, which can ensure the stability of the system power and supply power to the load when the photovoltaic system does not generate electricity at night or does not generate enough electricity in rainy days.
Whether it is an off grid or grid connected system, the working principle is that photovoltaic modules convert light energy into direct current, which is converted into current under the action of inverter, and finally realize the functions of power consumption and Internet access.
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