The process of solar photovoltaic power generation is simple, no mechanical rotating parts, no fuel consumption, no emission of any substances including greenhouse gases, no noise, and no pollution.
Solar energy resources are widely distributed and inexhaustible. Therefore, compared with new power generation technologies such as wind power generation, biomass power generation, and nuclear power, photovoltaic power generation is a renewable energy power generation technology with the most ideal characteristics of sustainable development (the richest resources and the cleanest power generation process). It has the following main advantages.
① Solar energy resources are inexhaustible. The solar energy irradiated on the earth is 6000 times greater than the energy currently consumed by human beings. Moreover, solar energy is widely distributed on the earth. As long as there is light, a photovoltaic power generation system can use. It will not be restricted by factors such as region and altitude.
② Solar energy resources are available everywhere, which can supply power nearby without long-distance transmission, avoiding the power loss caused by long-distance transmission lines.
③ The energy conversion process of photovoltaic power generation is simple. It is the direct conversion from light energy to electric energy. There is no intermediate process (such as thermal energy conversion to mechanical energy, mechanical energy conversion to electromagnetic energy, etc.) and mechanical movement, and there is no mechanical wear. According to thermodynamic analysis, photovoltaic power generation has high theoretical power generation efficiency, up to more than 80%, and has great potential for technological development.
④ Photovoltaic power generation itself does not use fuel, does not emit any substances such as greenhouse gases and other exhaust gases, does not pollute the air, does not produce noise. It is friendly to the environment and will not be impacted by the energy crisis or the instability of the fuel market. It is a truly green and environmentally friendly new renewable energy.
⑤ The photovoltaic power generation process does not require cooling water and can install on the desert Gobi where there is no water. Photovoltaic power generation can also be easily combined with buildings to form an integrated photovoltaic building power generation system. It does not need to occupy separate land and can save valuable land resources.
⑥ Photovoltaic power generation has no mechanical transmission parts. Its operation and maintenance are simple, and its operation is stable and reliable. A set of photovoltaic power generation systems can generate power as long as there are solar cell modules. And with the widespread use of automatic control technology, it can be unattended and low maintenance costs.
⑦ The photovoltaic power generation system has stable and reliable working performance and long service life (more than 30 years). The service life of crystalline silicon solar cells can be as long as 20 ~ 35 years. In the photovoltaic power generation system, as the design is reasonable and the type selection is appropriate, then the service life of the battery can reach 10-15 years.
⑧ The solar cell module is simple in structure, small in size, light in weight, and easy to transport and install. The photovoltaic power generation system has a short construction period and can be large or small according to the power load capacity. It is convenient and flexible and is extremely easy to combine and expand. Solar cells are a promising new type of power source with three advantages: permanence, cleanliness, and flexibility. Compared with thermal power and nuclear power generation, solar photovoltaic power generation does not cause environmental pollution. Solar cells can use on large, medium，and small occasions. Large enough to be used by medium-sized power stations with a capacity of one million kilowatts, and small enough to be used by independent solar power generation systems for only one household. These characteristics are unmatched by other power sources.